Learning Bulgarian language

Thread: Learning Bulgarian language

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  1. mandozai said:
     
  2. mandozai said:
     
  3. mandozai said:

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    Here for the new learners ... open it plz

    http://www.learn-bulgarian.net/100-F...nd-Phrases.pdf
     
  4. mariusmxm's Avatar

    mariusmxm said:

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    what is the difference between "казах" and "кажех" which means "I said", nali?
     
  5. mariusmxm's Avatar

    mariusmxm said:

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    This are the short forms??

    който - кой
    която - коя
    което - кое
    Last edited by mariusmxm; 05-20-2011 at 02:58 PM.
     
  6. temerut said:

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    "който" и "кой" are different types of pronouns
    "казах" and "кажех" are different tenses, but I think both mean "I said"
     
  7. glority94 said:

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    Quote Originally Posted by mariusmxm View Post
    what is the difference between "казах" and "кажех" which means "I said", nali?
    hey "казах" really means "I said", but "кажех" means "I was saying", the tenses are different (:
     
  8. mariusmxm's Avatar

    mariusmxm said:

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    Quote Originally Posted by glority94 View Post
    hey "казах" really means "I said", but "кажех" means "I was saying", the tenses are different (:
    Thanks
     
  9. bandziol20's Avatar

    bandziol20 said:

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    I've got a question for Bulgarian grammar.
    The sentence is :
    Само ти това го можеш, само ти така го можеш.
    Which means as I know : only you can do this, only you can do so
    What is го here for ? What does it mean ?
     
  10. mariusmxm's Avatar

    mariusmxm said:

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    Quote Originally Posted by bandziol20 View Post
    I've got a question for Bulgarian grammar.
    The sentence is :
    Само ти това го можеш, само ти така го можеш.
    Which means as I know : only you can do this, only you can do so
    What is го here for ? What does it mean ?
    го - it Is the short form from него - him
     
  11. bandziol20's Avatar

    bandziol20 said:

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    Oh, thank you very much. In Polish this is similar :
    Widzę go. I see him.
    Patrzę na niego. I look on him.

    And what is 'tova' in that sentence ?
     
  12. mariusmxm's Avatar

    mariusmxm said:

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    Quote Originally Posted by bandziol20 View Post
    Oh, thank you very much. In Polish this is similar :
    Widzę go. I see him.
    Patrzę na niego. I look on him.

    And what is 'tova' in that sentence ?
    това(tova) - this
     
  13. bandziol20's Avatar

    bandziol20 said:

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    Well, one thing yet : is it really necessary in Bulgarian to use both of them (това & го) in a sentence ?
     
  14. get_attitude_'s Avatar

    get_attitude_ said:

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    Well it's hard to explain because i think there aren't many philologists here and i don't know if i can cover it all. But in general го and това aren't grammatically related so much. It's a bigger rule (a bit like in romanian where you say l văd pe el -which means literally Him (l-short form of he in accusative) I see (văd - I is known from the conjugation) him (pe el - long forom of he in accusative). So in bulgarian again you can use both forms - Виждам го него/Петър - l văd pe el/Peter - I see him/Petter (in english there is no need of doubling) or you can use only the short one Виждам го - l văd - I see him.
    Hope i was useful
     
  15. mariusmxm's Avatar

    mariusmxm said:

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    get_attitude are you romanian or you know romanian?
     
  16. get_attitude_'s Avatar

    get_attitude_ said:

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    I am bulgarian and I know romanian, because I study balkan history, economics, politics and languages (romanian and turkish) in the University of Sofia
     
  17. get_attitude_'s Avatar

    get_attitude_ said:

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    Quote Originally Posted by mariusmxm View Post
    This are the short forms??

    който - кой
    която - коя
    което - кое
    By the way I can explain this easy for mariusmxm, because I assume by looking his avatar, that he knows romanian:
    ->care - който (for masculine), която (feminine), което (neutral), които (plural)
    But!
    ->cine - кой (masculine), коя (feminine), кое (neutral), кои (plural)

    For whoever doesn't know romanian, I'll try to explain in english:
    ->In english you use "that" for example to say "I want the truck/car/bike/roses, THAT is/are red." In this case in bulgarian you should use "който", "която", "което", "които", depending on the gender of the substantive (!)this is relative also to "кой", "коя", "кое", "кои":
    "Искам (I want) камиона (the truck)/ колата (the car)/ колелото (the bike)/ розите (the roses)/, който/която/което/които (that) е/са (is/are) червени (red)."

    The same pattern you follow when you say "The man/woman/child/people, WHO is/are here" - Мъжът (The man)/ Жената(The woman)/ Детето(The child)/ Хората (The people), който/която/което/които(who) е/са (is/are) тук (here).
    =>So bottom line - in bulgarian you use those forms for living and non-living substantives (I don't know if "living/non-living" is the right term)

    But!
    ->When you ask "WHO is/are that/those (man, woman, child, people)?", in bulgarian you use "кой", "коя", "кое", "кои": "Кой (who) е (is) онзи (that) мъж (man); Коя (who) е (is) онази (that) жена (woman)? Кое (Who) е (is) онова (that) дете (child)? Кои (Who) са (are) онези (those) хора (people)?
    ->Or "WHICH man/woman/child/people you like?", you say Кой мъж (Which man)/ Коя жена (Which woman)/ Кое дете (Which child)/ Кои хора (Which people) ти (you=to you) харесват (like)? Here the meaning is exactly which one of all. In this meaning it can be used for non-living substantives:
    Кой камион? - Which truck? (which one of all)
    Коя кола? - Which car?
    Кое колело? - Which bike?
    Кои рози? - Which roses?
    =>You could use those forms for both living and non-living substantives but these are more likely to be replacement of living substantives.


    Again I hope I was useful
    Last edited by get_attitude_; 11-17-2011 at 10:55 AM.
     
  18. mariusmxm's Avatar

    mariusmxm said:

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    I know them now, when I wrote the post I didn't know them, but thank you anyway that you explained you're a very very good teacher Have you skype id or yahoo ?? (send me in PM)
     
  19. Sanmayce's Avatar

    Sanmayce said:

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    Hi guys,
    many errors you all did in above posts, so here comes my reinforcement:

    First, "казах" and "кажех" are NOT different tenses:
    "кажех" equals not "I was saying" (it means "казвах") but "Had I said" - it is conditional!
    Edit: My fault, iin fact they are Минало Свършено and Минало Несвършено respectively, my point was that the latter maps/corresponds not to direct analog but has other use! The abundance of available forms instead of making things easier makes the choice more tricky:
    СВЪРШЕНО ВРЕМЕ и СВЪРШЕН ВИД: КАЗАХ
    НЕСВЪРШЕНО ВРЕМЕ и СВЪРШЕН ВИД: КАЖЕХ
    СВЪРШЕНО ВРЕМЕ и НЕСВЪРШЕН ВИД: КАЗВХ
    НЕСВЪРШЕНО ВРЕМЕ и НЕСВЪРШЕН ВИД: КАЗВАХ
    http://talkoven.onlinerechnik.com/du...B2%D0%B0%D0%BC

    Second, "Само ти това го можеш, само ти така го можеш."
    го-it and него-him are not the same! - него is still 'it'.
    As for the verse, my dummy translation is:
    (You are the one)/(It is only you) that can do it, only you can do it like this.

    http://bg.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D0%A8...B2%D0%B0%D0%BC
    Edit: After reading the avove link I found so many errors in there, sad - nobody bothered to provide full analysis.
    I spent almost a whole winter back in 2003 in order to conjugate fully the verb 'slay' both in English and Bulgarian, in short the power of Bulgarian is immense when you have to express an action. English has 16 tenses whereas Bulgarian features (6x2+2)x2=14x2=28 (because of verb terminative/imperfective aspect along with the SIMPLE/PROGRESSIVE time, see the attached picture).

    Only a glimpse on slay/убия-убивам might coming from combining the above-mentioned dual verb forms:

    INDEFINITE: Акцент на ПРОЦЕСа:
    НЕСВЪРШЕНО ВРЕМЕ и СВЪРШЕН ВИД: УБИЕХ
    НЕСВЪРШЕНО ВРЕМЕ и НЕСВЪРШЕН ВИД: УБИВАХ
    СВЪРШЕНО ВРЕМЕ и СВЪРШЕН ВИД: УБИХ
    СВЪРШЕНО ВРЕМЕ и НЕСВЪРШЕН ВИД: УБИВХ

    PERFECT(DEFINITE): Акцент на РЕЗУЛТАТа:
    НЕСВЪРШЕНО ВРЕМЕ и СВЪРШЕН ВИД: УБИЕЛ
    НЕСВЪРШЕНО ВРЕМЕ и НЕСВЪРШЕН ВИД: УБИВАЛ
    СВЪРШЕНО ВРЕМЕ и СВЪРШЕН ВИД: УБИЛ
    СВЪРШЕНО ВРЕМЕ и НЕСВЪРШЕН ВИД: УБИВЛ

    It is a serious thing ... no time for more.
    Attached Images
    Last edited by Sanmayce; 12-03-2011 at 08:45 AM.
    Get down get down get down get it on show love and give it up
    What are you waiting on?
     
  20. get_attitude_'s Avatar

    get_attitude_ said:

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    Sanmayce, you really got into the bulgarian grammar. I want just to clear something out. There is a difference between него го-на него му, нея я-на нея ѝ, тях ги-на тях им, but I will demonstrate some examples of both translations of some of those forms and if there is someone interested I'll try to explain and grammatically the differences between them.
    So now I'll stop very very basically only on него-го and the other forms of the same type нея-я/тях ги, because that was the question actually:

    Него - this is a form of personal pronoun for masculine and neutral words. It's not always translated as him, which is used if the word is masculine and if it's a person. It could be translated with it too when it's not a person. Only if the word has neutral gender it's always translated with it.
    =>Examples: (note that НА/ДО НЕГО, has a short form not го but МУ. However in those cases we can't use the short form. This forms are a bit different as I said but I want to demonstrate how to translate него as him and as It, independently of the differences I talked about and I won't explain them now. Just keep that in mind )
    1. Това е камък (masculine, object). Аз седя на него.
    -> This is a stone. I am sitting on it.
    2. Това е мъж (masculine, person). Аз седя до него.
    -> This is a man. I am sitting next to him.
    3. Това е дърво/куче/момче/момиче/дете (neutral, person/object). Аз дедя до него.
    -> This is a tree/dog/boy/girl/kid. I am sitting next to it.

    Го - it is a shorten form of него so in some cases it could be translated as him. It's possible to be it also. Again if it's a masculine word, showing a person, we need to translate it with him. But if it's not a person we should translate it with it. And again if it's neutral - translate it with it.
    =>Examples:
    1. Това е камък (masculine, object). Вдигам го.
    -> This is a stone. I pick it up.
    2. Това е мъж (masculine, person). Познавам го.
    ->This is a man. I know him.
    3. Това е дърво/куче/момче/момиче/дете (neutral, person/object). Виждам го.
    -> This is a tree/dog/boy/girl/kid. I see it.
    ***
    The same pattern is followed by the personal pronouns for feminine words: Нея/я. This time translation is her (instead of him) or it.
    ***
    When using plural there is only one form Тях/ги. Translation - only "them".
    ***
    If you use a person's name it's always gonna be translated with him or her:
    1. Това е Мария. Виждам я/Нея я виждам.
    -> This is Maria. I see her.
    2. Това е Петър. Виждам го/Него го виждам.
    -> This is Peter. I see him.

    (!)For the doubling него+го/нея+я/тях+ги check the pattern I used in post #1634. There is only a part of the basics of this rule but it should be enough.

    Again I want to underline that I only give examples for translation of него-го/нея-я/тях-ги with the both meanings as him/it, her/it, them. There is much more to be said but I don't have the time now. It's very big issue and my point here was only to make sure no one assumes that него is always him and го is always it
    Last edited by get_attitude_; 12-04-2011 at 07:39 AM.