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  1. #1
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    Default Arabic grammar from A-Z

    (This Topic is concerned with the grammar of
    Classical Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic exclusively)


    Introduction :

    Arabic Grammar
    Due to the rapid expansion of Islam in the 8th century
    many people learned Arabic as a lingua franca.
    For this reason, the earliest grammatical treatises
    on Arabic are often written by non-native speakers.

    Traditionally, the grammatical sciences are divided into four branches:
    al-lugah (lexicon) concerned with collecting and explaining vocabulary.
    at-ta-rif (morphology) determining the form of the individual words.
    an-na-w (syntax) primarily concerned with inflection (i-rab)
    which had already been lost in dialects.
    al-istiqaq (derivation) examining the origin of the words.


    Noun:

    The Arabic noun can take one of three states of definiteness:
    definite, indefinite or construct state.
    The definite state is marked by the article al-.
    The indefinite state is marked by an ending -n (nunation).
    The construct state is unmarked and occurs in the first member
    of a genitive construction.

    Nouns (and their modifying adjectives)
    are either definite or indefinite
    (there is an article for the definite state only).
    A noun is definite if it has the definite article prefix (الـ al-),
    if it has a suffixed pronoun (كلبها الكبير kalbu-ha l-kabīr "her big dog"),
    if it is inherently definite by being a proper noun
    (مصر القديمة Miṣru l-qadīma, "old Cairo"),
    or if it is in a genitive construction (iḍāfa, status constructus)
    with a definite noun or nouns
    (بنت الملك bintu l-malik(i), "the daughter of the king")


    Arabic Personal Pronouns:

    Singular:
    I - anaa, for example: anaa katabtu - I wrote.
    thou (masculine) - anta, for example: anta katabta - thou wrotest.
    thou (feminine) - anti, for example: anti katabti - thou wrotest.
    he (masculine) - huwa, for example: huwa kataba - he wrote.
    she (feminine) - hiya, for example: hiya katabat - she wrote.

    Plural:
    we - naHnu, for example: naHnu katabnaa - we wrote.
    you (pl. masculine) - antum, for example: antum katabtum - you wrote.
    you (pl. feminine) - antunna, for example: antunna katabtunna - you wrote.
    you two (dual masc and fem) - antumaa katabtumaa - you two wrote.
    they (masc) - hum, for example: hum katabuu - they wrote.
    they (fem) - hunna, for example: hunna katabna - they wrote.
    they two (dual masc) - humaa - humaa katabaa - they two wrote.
    they two (dual fem) - humaa - humaa katabataa - they two wrote.

    Two Types of Arabic Sentences:
    1. Verbal sentence:
    the sentence starts with the verb and subject follows.
    The verb is always in the singular form even for the cases
    where the subject is dual or plural.
    Examples for the verbal sentence:
    dhahaba abiy ila Cairo - literal translation -
    has gone my father to Cairo.
    But, it really means - my father has gone to Cairo.

    raja'a abiy min Cairo - literal translation -
    returned my father from Cairo.
    But, it really means - my father returned from Cairo.

    la'iba al-waladaani - the two boys played (dual).
    la'iba al-awlaadu - the boys played.
    As you see, the verb is always in the singular form
    even though the subject is in dual or plural.

    2. Nominal sentence:
    the sentence starts with the noun or subject and the others follow.
    The verb must agree with the subject in number and gender.
    Examples for the nominal sentence:
    abiy raja'a min Cairo - My father returned from Cairo.
    akhiy kataba - my brother wrote.
    al-waladu la'iba - the boy played.
    al-waladaani la'ibaa - the two boys played (dual).
    al-awlaadu la'iboo - boys played (boys is plural =
    "they" so the equivalent verb for "they" is "la'iboo").

    As you see, the verb agrees with the subject in number.
    anaa wa akhiy wa abiy dhahabnaa ila Cairo -
    I and my brother and my father went to Cairo.
    In this sentence, I, and my brother and my father are equivalent to "us." Therefore, the verb must agree with the "us," e.g., dhahabnaa.

    Gender:
    Arabic has two genders, expressed by pronominal
    as well as by verbal agreement.
    Agreement with numerals shows a peculiar 'polarity'.
    The genders are usually referred to as masculine and feminine,
    but the situation is more complicated than that.
    The 'feminine' gender is also used to express 'singulatives'.

    The marker for the feminine gender is a -t- suffix,
    but some nouns without this marker also take feminine agreement
    (e. g. umm 'mother', ard 'earth').
    Already in Classical Arabic, the -t marker was not pronounced
    in pausa.
    It is written with a special letter (ta marbuta)
    indicating that a t sound is to be pronounced in sandhi but not in pausa.

    Tenses:
    There are two main tenses in the Arabic language.
    1.Perfect Tense,
    2.Imperfect Tense or the Present Tense.

    The action is completed in the perfect tense.
    You may also call this as the past tense because
    the action is completed before the present so it belongs to the past.
    For example, one may say, "I ate".
    The action of eating was finished in the past.
    The past could be a few minutes or a few decades
    before the present time.
    Alternately, in the second tense, i.e., the imperfect,
    the action is still continuing.

    For example, you knock on the door and walk in.
    You see he is eating his meal.
    He says to you, "I am eating".
    The action is still continuing, he is still eating while talking to you.
    This is the present tense in English.
    It is also the "imperfect tense" in Arabic.
    You look at the table above and locate the pronoun "I"
    on the left column and follow it to the right to the "imperfect" column.
    You will see the verb, "akulu". It means,
    "I am eating" or "I eat".
    What about the future tense?
    Well, there is not such a thing as the future tense in Arabic.
    This is done by adding the prefix "sa" to the imperfect form of the verb.
    For example, let's look at the table above to find out the imperfect
    form of the verb "akala".
    It is "ya'kulu". Add the prefix "sa" to the "ya'kulu" you get,
    "saya'kulu" which means "He will eat".

    Division:
    Traditionally, the grammatical sciences are divided into five branches:
    * al-luġah Arabic: اللغة‎ (lexicon) concerned with collecting and explaining vocabulary
    * at-taṣrīf Arabic: التصريف‎ (morphology) determining the form of the individual words
    * an-naḥw Arabic: النحو‎ (syntax) primarily concerned with inflection (iʻrāb) which had already been lost in dialects.
    * al-ištiqāq Arabic: الاشتقاق‎ (derivation) examining the origin of the words
    * al-balāġah Arabic: البلاغة‎ (rhetoric) which elucidates construct quality



    Phonology
    Classical Arabic has 28 consonantal phonemes,
    including two semi-vowels, which comprise the Arabic alphabet
    .
    It also has six vowel phonemes
    (three short vowels and three long vowels).
    These appear as various allophones, depending on the preceding consonant. Short vowels are not usually represented in written language,
    although they may be indicated with diacritics

    Hamzatu 'l-waṣl (همزة الوصل), elidable hamza,
    is a phonetic object prefixed to the beginning of a word for ease of pronunciation, since literary Arabic doesn't allow consonant clusters
    at the beginning of a word.
    Elidable hamza drops out as a vocal, if a word is preceding it.
    This word will then produce an ending vocal, "helping vocal"
    to facilitate pronunciation.
    This short vocal may be , depending on the preceding vowel,
    ـَ a fatḥa (فتحة) /a/
    , ـِ a kasra (كسرة) /i/
    or ـُ a ḍamma (ضمة) /u/.
    If the preceding word ends in a sukūn (سكون)
    (i.e. not followed by a short vowel),
    the Hamzatu 'l-waṣl assumes a kasrah /i/.
    Symbol ـّ shadda (شدة)
    indicates a gemination or consonant doubling.
    See more in Tashkīl


    to be continued...

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  3. #2
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    Inflection (case)
    إﻋﺮﺍﺏ iʿrāb


    Arabic has three grammatical cases (حالات ḥālāt)
    roughly corresponding to:
    nominative, genitive and accusative.

    Normally, singular nouns take the ending -u(n) in the nominative,
    -i(n) in the genitive and -a(n) in the accusative.

    Some exceptional nouns, known as dip totes
    (الممنوع من الصرف al-mamnūʻu mina 'ṣ-ṣarf),

    never take the final n, and have the suffix -a
    in the genitive except when the diptotic noun is in the definite state

    (preceded by al- or is in the construct state).
    However, case is not shown in standard orthography,
    with the exception of indefinite accusative nouns
    ending in any letter but ة tāʾ marbūṭa or ء hamza,
    where the -a(n) "sits" upon an alif added to the
    end of the word (the alif still shows up in unvowelled texts).

    When speaking or reading aloud, articulating the case
    ending is optional, but rarely used except in religious situations.
    Technically, every noun has such an ending,
    although at the end of a sentence, no inflection is pronounced,
    even in formal speech, because of the rules of 'pause' (الوقف al-waqf).

    Case is not shown in standard orthography,
    with the exception of indefinite accusative nouns ending
    in any letter but ta marbuta or hamza,
    where the -a(n) "sits" upon an alif added
    to the end of the word (the alif still shows up in un vowel texts).
    Cases, however, are marked in the Koran,
    children's books, primers and to remove ambiguous situations.
    If marked, it is shown at the end of the noun

    Nominative case:
    المرفوع al-marfūʿ


    * Subjects of a verbal sentence.
    * Subjects and predicates of an equational
    (non-verbal) sentence, with some notable exceptions.
    * Certain adverbs retain the nominative marker.
    * The citation form of words is (if noted at all) in the nominative case.

    For singular nouns and broken plurals, it is marked
    as a ḍammah (-u) for the definite or
    ḍammah + nunation (-un) for the indefinite.
    The dual and regular masculine plural are formed
    by adding -āni and -ūna respectively
    (-ā and -ū in the construct state).
    The regular feminine plural is formed by adding
    -ātu in the definite and -ātun in the indefinite

    Accusative case :
    المنصوب al-manṣūb


    * The subject of an equational
    (non-verbal) sentence, if it is initiated with
    'inna, or one of her sisters.

    * The predicate of kāna/yakūnu "be" and its sisters.
    Hence, البنت جميلة al-bintu jamīlatun "the girl is beautiful"
    but البنت كانت جميلة al-bintu kānat jamīla(tan) "the girl was beautiful"
    (spelling جميلة is not affected here (letter ة)
    in the unvocalised Arabic).
    The ending in brackets may not be pronounced
    in pausa or in informal Arabic.

    * Both the subject and the predicate of ẓanna and
    its sisters in an equational clause.

    * The object of a transitive verb
    * Most adverbs.
    * Internal object/cognate accusative structure
    * The accusative of specification/purpose/circumstantial

    For singular nouns and broken plurals,
    it is marked as a fatḥah (-a) for the definite
    or fatḥah + nunation (-an) for the indefinite.
    For the indefinite accusative, the fatḥah + nunation
    is added to an alif e.g. ـًا, which is added to the ending
    of all nouns (e.g. كان تعباناً kāna taʿbānan "he was tired")
    not ending with a hamza or ta marbuta.
    The dual and regular masculine plural are formed by
    adding -ayn (i) and -īn(a)

    (both spelled ـين in Arabic) respectively
    (-ay and -ī in the construct state, both spelled ـي in Arabic).
    The regular feminine plural is formed by adding -āt(i)
    in the definite and -āt(in) in the indefinite, both spelled ـات in Arabic



    Genitive case:
    المجرور al-majrūr


    * Objects of prepositions.
    * All, but not necessarily the first member
    (the first nomen regens), of an
    iḍāfa (genitive construction) .

    * The object of a locative adverb.
    * Semi-prepositions if preceded by another
    (true or semi) preposition

    * Objects of كم kam "how much/many" and أي 'ayy "any".

    * Elative (comparative/superlative)
    adjectives behave similarly: أطول ولد "ʼaṭwalu waladin"
    "the tallest boy".

    For singular nouns and broken plurals,
    it is marked as a kasrah (-i) for the definite
    or kasrah + nunation (-in) for the indefinite.
    The dual and regular masculine plural are formed by
    adding -ayn(i) and -īn(a) respectively
    (both spelled ـين in Arabic)
    (-ay and -ī in the construct state, both spelled ـي in Arabic).

    The regular feminine plural is formed by adding -āt(i)
    in the definite and -āt(in) in the indefinite, both spelled ـات in Arabic.

    Note: diptotic nouns receive a fatḥah
    (-a) in the genitive, indefinite and are never nunated.

    Note: there is no dative case; instead,
    the preposition لـ "li-" is used


    Number:
    عدد ʿadad


    Arabic distinguishes between nouns based on quantity.
    All nouns are either singular (مفرد múfrad)
    when there is one, dual (مثنى muṯánna) when there are two,
    and plural (جمع jamʻ) if there are three or more.

    The dual is formed by adding ـان -ān(i)
    to the noun stem in the nominative and ـين -ayn(i)
    in the accusative and genitive.[4] The final vowel
    "-i" is not pronounced in pause and more colloquial
    forms of Arabic (not affecting the Arabic un vocalized spelling).

    The final ending ـن "-ni" is dropped in the iḍāfa construct form
    (Status constructs), resulting in ـا -ā and in the nominative
    and ـي -ay in the accusative
    and genitive (affects the spelling as well).

    The plurals are formed in two ways.

    The "sound plurals" are formed by the addition of a suffix.
    Masculine sound plurals take the forms ـون "-ūn(a)"
    in the nominative and ـين "-īn(a)" in the
    genitive and accusative.

    These do not change whether the noun
    is definite or indefinite. Note that in written Arabic
    (without vocalization) dual and sound plural forms
    are spelled identically but pronounced differently.
    The final "-a" is not pronounced in pausa and in less formal Arabic.

    Feminine indefinite sound plurals take
    ـات "-āt(un)" in the nominative and ـات "-āt(in)"
    in the accusative and genitive.
    Feminine definite sound plurals take ـات "-āt(u)"
    in the nominative and ـات "-āt(i)" in the accusative
    and genitive. The broken plurals are formed by
    altering the vowel structure according to one
    of about five established patterns.
    Some nouns have two or more plural forms,
    usually to distinguish between different meanings.
    All these feminine forms are spelled identically in Arabic,
    the endings in brackets are not pronounced in pause
    and in less formal Arabic



    Pronoun:
    ضمير ḍamīr


    A pronominal paradigm consists of 12 forms:
    In singular and plural, the 2nd and 3rd persons
    differentiate gender, while the 1st person does not.
    In the dual, there is no 1st person, and only a single
    form for each 2nd and 3rd person.
    Traditionally, the pronouns are listed in order 3rd, 2nd, 1st

    Personal pronouns:


    Note: "anta" can be shortened to "ant"

    Dual forms: antumā أنتما and humā هما,
    plural feminine antunna أنتنّ and hunna هنّ are
    only used in very formal Arabic.

    Enclitic pronouns:

    Enclitic forms of the pronoun
    (الضمائر المتصلة aḍ-ḍamāʼiru 'l-muttaṣila(tu))
    may be affixed to nouns
    (representing genitive case, i. e. possession)
    and to verbs
    (representing accusative, i. e. a direct object).
    Most of them are clearly related to the full personal pronouns.
    They are identical in form in both cases,
    except for the 1st person singular,
    which is -ī after nouns (genitive) and -nī after verbs (accusative)



    In a less formal Arabic, like in many spoken dialects, -ka and -ki are pronounced as -ak, and -ik in all case endings, thus,
    the case endings (-u, -i and -a) are often ignored.


    Demonstratives:

    There are two demonstratives
    (أسماء الإشارة asmāʼu al-ʼišāra(ti)), near-deictic
    ('this') and far-deictic ('that'):

    * hādha (هذا), f. hādhih(i) (هذه), pl. hāʼulāʼ(i) (هؤلاء ) 'this, these'
    * dhālik(a) (ذلك), f. tilka (تلك), pl. ʼulāʼik(a) (أولئك) 'that, those'

    Plural forms of non-human nouns are treated as feminine singular.

    Some of the demonstratives
    (hādha, hādhihi, hāʼulāʼi, ʼulāʼika and dhālika)
    should be pronounced with a long "ā", although the
    un vocalized script doesn't contain an alif (ا).
    They have letter ـٰ "dagger alif" (ألف خنجرية‎‎ alif khanjariyya),
    which doesn't exist on Arabic keyboards and is seldom written,
    even in the vocalized Arabic.

    Numerals:
    Cardinal numerals...
    (الأعداد الأصليّة al-aʿdād al-aṣliyya) from 1-10
    (0 (٠) zero is صفر ṣifr, from which the English words
    "cipher" and "zero" are ultimately derived)

    1 * wāḥid(un) (واحدٌ)
    * 2 iṯnān(i) (اثنانِ)
    * 3 ṯalāṯa(tun) (ثلاثةٌ)
    * 4 arbaʿa(tun) (أربعةٌ)
    * 5 ḫamsa(tun) (خمسةٌ)
    * 6 sitta(tun) (ستّةٌ)
    * 7 sabʿa(tun) (سبعةٌ)
    * 8 ṯamāniya(tun) (ثمانيّةٌ)
    * 9 tisʿa(tun) (تسعةٌ)
    * 10 ʿašara(tun) (عشرةٌ)

    The Arabic numerals are written as follows:
    ٠ - zero, ١ - one, ٢ - two, ٣ - three, ٤ - four,
    ٥ - five, ٦ - six, ٧ - seven, ٨ - eight, ٩ - nine

    The endings in brackets are dropped in less formal
    Arabic and in pause.
    Note that ة (tāʾ marbūṭa) is pronounced as simple /a/ in this cases.
    There are cases when -t in ة must be pronounced but not the
    rest of the ending.

    إثنان (iṯnān(i)) is changed to إثنين (iṯnayn(i)) in oblique cases.
    This form is also commonly used in a less formal Arabic
    in the nominative case.

    The numerals 1 and 2 are adjectives.
    Thus they follow the noun and agree with gender.

    Numerals 3-10 have a peculiar rule of agreement
    known as polarity:
    A feminine referrer agrees with a numeral in masculine gender
    and vice versa, e.g. ṯalāṯu fatayātin (ثلاثُ فتياتٍ) 'three girls'.

    The noun counted takes indefinite genitive plural
    (as the attribute in a genitive construct.)

    Numerals 11-19 are indeclinable, perpetually
    in the indefinite accusative. Numbers 11 and 12 show gender
    agreement in the ones, and 13-19 show polarity in the ones.
    The gender of عشر in numbers 11-19 agrees with the counted noun
    (unlike the standalone numeral 10 which shows polarity).
    The counted noun takes indefinite accusative singular.

    11 * aḥada ʿašara (أحدَ عشر)
    * 12iṯnā ʿašara (إثنا عشر)
    * 13 ṯalāṯata ʿašara (ثلاثةَ عشر)

    The numerals 20-99 are followed by a noun in the indefinite
    accusative singular as well.
    There is agreement in gender with the numerals
    1 and 2, and polarity for numerals 3-9.

    * 20 ʿišrūn(a) (عشرون) (dual of '10')
    * 21 wāḥidun wa ʿišrūn(a) (واحد وعشرون)
    * 22 iṯnāni wa ʿišrūn(a) (إثنان وعشرون)
    * 23 ṯalāṯatu wa ʿišrūn(a) (ثلاثة وعشرون)
    * 30 ṯalāṯūn(a) (ثلاتون)
    * 40 arbaʿūn(a) (أربعون)

    Whole hundreds, thousands etc.
    appear as first terms of genitive constructions,
    e.g. alf(u) layla(ti) wa-layla(tu) (1001 nights)ألف ليلة وليلة

    * 100 miʼa(tu) (مئة), can also be spelled مائة
    (same pronunciation)
    * 1000 alf(u) (ألف)

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  5. #3
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    Fractions of a whole smaller than "half"
    are expressed by the structure sg. fuʿl (فعل), pl. afʿāl (أفعال).

    * niṣf(un) (نصف) "half"
    * ṯulṯ(un) (ثلث) "one third"
    * ṯulṯān(i) (ثلثان) "two thirds"
    * rubʿ(un) (ربع) "one quarter"
    * ṯalaṯatu arbāʿ(in) (ثلاثة أرباع) "three quarters" etc).


    ===================================

    Conjugation - prefixes and suffixes:
    اقتران iqtirān


    In Arabic the grammatical person and number
    as well as the mood is designated by a variety
    of prefixes and suffixes.
    Most Arabic verbs are regular and follow the pattern detailed below

    NOTE:The Arabic example below is the Arabic verb
    kataba (كتب), "to write".
    Only the prefixes and suffixes of the verb have been vocalized,
    the vocalization of the stems
    (كَتَب for the past and كْتُب for the present)
    has been omitted for reasons of legibility.

    Prefixes and suffixes of the Arabic verb:




    In unvocalised Arabic, كتبْت - katabtu, katabta, katabti and
    katabat are all written the same.
    Forms katabtu and katabta and even katabti
    can be abbreviated to "katabt" in spoken Arabic
    and in pause, making them also sound the same.

    "kataba" can be abbreviated to "katab" in spoken Arabic and in pause.

    Dual verb and feminine plural forms are only used in very formal Arabic.
    ا (alif) in final ـوا (-ū) is silent


    Perfective /perfect (past tense):
    الماضي al-māḍī


    In the perfective (occasionally called 'perfect')
    form, the perfective stem faʻal is affixed with a personal ending,
    e. g. kataba 'he wrote', qaraʼa 'he read'.
    The perfective expresses a completed action,
    i.e. mostly past tense. The second vowel is /a/
    in most verbs, but /i/ in some verbs (especially intransitive)
    and /u/ in a few (especially verbs whose meaning is
    "be X" or "become X" where X is an adjective,
    usually naming a permanent or semi-permanent quality,
    e.g. kabura 'he became big, he grew up')



    Imperfective (present tense):
    المضارع al-muḍāriʻ


    The imperfective expresses an action in progress,
    or incompleted, i.e. mostly present tense.
    There are several vowel patterns (a-a, a-u, a-i)
    the root can take. The root takes a prefix as well
    as a suffix to build the verb form.
    E. g. يكتب yaktubu 'he is writing'.
    Note the co-incidence of 3rd f. sg. and 2nd m. sg.
    To explain the future tense, it is possible to use
    the prefix سـ sa- in front of the imperfective forms
    (or fully written سوف sawfa),
    e.g. سيكتب sayaktubu or سوف يكتب sawfa yaktubu "he will write"




    to be continued...

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  7. #4
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    PDF # 1 READING & WRITING

    click on the link below to download

    http://www.arabic-studio.com/support...nd_writing.pdf

    Contents
    Introduction:

    1- The Alphabet
    A The Primary Letters
    B Pronunciation
    C Supplementary Letters

    2- Writing

    3- The Vowels and the Sukūn
    A The Short Vowels and the Sukūn
    B Long Vowels
    C Diphthongs
    D Shaddah / Tashdīd
    E Tanwīn / Nunation
    F Pausing when Speaking or Reading Aloud

    4- The Two Hamzahs
    A The Permanent Hamzah
    B The Connecting Hamzah

    5 - Elision
    A The Sun and Moon Letters

    Appendix A

    _________________________________________________

    PDF file # 2 BASIC ARABIC GRAMMAR

    http://www.arabic-studio.com/support...mar_a_prev.pdf

    Contents

    1- Definite and Indefinite Nouns, and the Nominal Sentence.......................................... ..........3
    2 - Adjectives and Definiteness Agreement......................................... .........................................9
    3- Gender............................................ .................................................. .......................................15
    4 - The Grammatical Cases and Prepositions...................................... ......................................22
    5 - Verbs - The Perfect Tense............................................. .................................................. ........30
    6 - Dual Nouns............................................. .................................................. ...............................38
    7 - Plural Nouns............................................. .................................................. ............................43
    8 - The Detached Pronouns and the Irregular Nominal Sentence.......................................... .51
    9 - The Imperfect Tense and Negative Verbal Sentences......................................... .................56
    10 - Using verbs and adjectives correctly......................................... ............................................

    _________________________________________________

    PDF file # 3 BASIC ARABIC PHRASES

    http://www.arabic-studio.com/support...ic_phrases.pdf

    Contents


    Introduction: Approaches to Learning Arabic............................................ ...........................2
    1- Introducing Yourself.......................................... .................................................. .....................3
    2 - Masculine and Feminine.......................................... .................................................. ...............4
    3 - Basic Questions......................................... .................................................. ..............................5





    To be continued ...

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  9. #5
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    For more details about the alphabets
    check out this flash file ..
    click on the green link to preview the presentation
    http://www.learnarabic.me/blog/arabi...details-flash/


    Another video for alphabets ..
    Last edited by Maviii; 08-25-2010 at 01:02 PM.

  10. #6
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    Basic grammar ...lessons

    part one..


    part two..


    If you like the lessons you can follow the other parts in youtube
    thanks for watching ..hope it helps

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  12. #7
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    Default The Conjugation Table

    The Conjugation Table :

    When conjugating verbs, there are three aspects about the subject (i.e. the one doing the verb) to keep in mind:

    person
    (third, second, and first): The third person is used when you are talking about the subject and the subject is not present, the second person is used when you are addressing the subject, and the first person is used when you yourself are the subject.
    gender (masculine and feminine)
    plurality (singular, dual, and plural)

    Arabic uses all three persons and it uses the masculine and feminine genders with no neutral.

    Furthermore, plurality in Arabic is of three types:
    singular, dual, and plural.

    Dual indicates on two entities and plural indicates on three or more entities.

    Multiplying 3 persons with 2 genders with 3 pluralities yields 18 conjugations. So we would expect Arabic conjugation tables to look something like the following.




    However, not all of the conjugations for the first person exist. The actual template for Arabic conjugation tables is as given below.



    The Canonical Verb

    When we start talking about how verbs look and how they change, we’re going to need an actual example to work with.
    Since the beginning of Arabic grammar over 14 centuries ago, the root letters ف، ع، ل have been used for this purpose.

    So if we want to indicate, for example, that the letters ن، ص، ر should have a فتحة on all three letters and there should be an

    aleph between the first and second letter, we simply say that the word needs to be on the pattern فَاعَلَ.

    The canonical letters are replaced with the letters we’re working with and we get نَاصَرَ.

    The Past Tense Verb

    The first conjugation of the past tense verb is achieved by placing a given set of base letters on the pattern فَعَلَ, فَعِلَ, or فَعُلَ.

    For the duration of this tutorial, we will not concern ourselves with these three variations, how they work, and why they exist; that will be discussed in a later tutorial.

    For now, we assume that taking a set of base letters and placing them on the pattern فَعَلَ will give us the first conjugation of the verb in the past tense.

    Let’s use the root letters ن، ص، ر which afford the meaning of “helping”. The word نَصَرَ , then, means “he helped”.



    The rest of the conjugations are achieved by adding suffices to this most basic form.
    Read the table below, studying the endings in each conjugation.




    Variation in the past tense verb happens in three aspects:

    voice (active and passive): when a verb is active, its subject is
    mentioned; when it is passive, its object takes the place of its subject.
    Compare, for example, “I helped” and “I was helped”.
    In the first instance “I” is the subject while in the second “I” is the object and the subject hasn’t been mentioned.

    negation (affirmative and negative)
    distance (simple past, present perfect, past perfect):
    simple past is the past tense without any distance indicated, as in “I helped”; present perfect adds “has/have” to give “I have helped”; and past perfect adds “had” to give “I had helped”

    Multiplying 2 voices with 2 parities of negation with 3 levels in distance, we get 12 conjugation tables. In reality, however, the active and passive tables for the negative present perfect tense are not used. In other words, we do not use “I have not helped” nor “I have not been helped”; these meanings are conveyed using other methods.

    Active & Passive
    An active past tense verb is rendered passive by using the following algorithm.

    1. the last letter is left alone
    2. the second last letter is given a كسرة
    3. all other vowels are changed to ضمة

    So نَصَرَ, for example, would become نُصِرَ.
    The resulting verb is conjugated in the exact same way as studied above.
    A small point to note here is that, in the beginning of this tutorial, mention was made of the fact that the past tense verb may be on one of three patterns.
    It is important to note that, despite which of those three a verb will use, the passive will always be constructed in the same way; the passive verbs from all three of those patterns look exactly the same.




    Affirmative & Negative

    An affirmative past tense verb is negated simply by prefixing it with the particle ما.



    Simple Past, Present Perfect & Past Perfect

    A simple past tense verb is rendered into the present perfect tense by prefixing it with the particle قَدْ.



    Similarly, rendering a verb into the past perfect tense is done by prefixing it with the verb كَانَ.
    There is an important point to note here. قد, like ما, is simply a particle and it always looks the same.

    كان, however, is a verb and it must therefore be conjugated alongside the main verb.
    كان is an advanced verb form and so its conjugation must simply be memorized for the time being.

    continue...

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  14. #8
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    The Imperfect Verb

    The past tense verb is referred to as the perfect verb because the action has already taken place.
    The imperfect verb, on the other hand, is called such because the action has not yet completed.
    This tense alone is indicative of the present tense, the present continuous, and the future tense.
    Context will determine which of the three is intended.

    Let’s take the base letters س، م، ع, which afford the sense of “hearing”. The imperfect verb is constructed by placing these letters on the pattern يَفْعَلُ; we get يَسْمَعُ.

    This verb can mean “he is hearing”, “he hears”, and “he will hear”.

    Just as with the past tense verb, this pattern also has three variations. The pattern can be يَفْعَلُ, يَفْعِلُ, or يَفْعُلُ.
    For our purposes, we will simply work with يَفْعَلُ and ignore the other variations.

    The conjugation table is given below. Notice that the imperfect verb has both a prefix and a suffix.
    The prefix is one ofي, ت, أ, or ن. Study the table below.



    There are a plethora of variations that can occur for the imperfect verb. Some of these include the following.

    voice
    (active and passive): compare “I am hearing”, “I hear”, and “I will hear” with “I am being heard”, “I am heard”, and “I will be heard”
    negation (positive and negative): compare “I am hearing”, “I hear”, and “I will hear” with “I am not hearing”, “I do not hear”, and “I will not hear”
    limiting to the future (near future and distant future): the only meaning conveyed by the verb now is “I will hear”, or “I will soon hear” in the case of near future
    emphatically negating the future: “I will never hear”
    emphatically negating the past: “I have never heard”
    forming the past continuous: “I used to hear”
    emphasizing the verb: “I definitely hear” or “I will definitely hear”

    Appropriately multiplying the above sets of tables gives us a total of 16 conjugation tables.

    ____________________________________________


    Active & Passive

    The active verb is rendered passive by applying the following algorithm.

    The prefix of the imperfect verb will be given a ضمة
    the very last letter will be left as is
    all the letters in between that have vowels will have their vowels changed to a فتحة

    * So يَسْمَعُ, for example, will become يُسْمَعُ. And this algorithm applies despite the variation
    in the middle letter that was mentioned in the beginning of this tutorial *



    To be continued ..

    until then this is some websites to help you convert the verbs in tasrif ( Verb Conjugation)

    http://qutrub.arabeyes.org/

    http://azahou45.free.fr/tasrif/

    http://acon.baykal.be/


    * if you have any other questions about spelling the arabic words which is listed in these charts leave me message via pm *

    good luck
    Last edited by Maviii; 02-01-2011 at 09:10 PM.

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    Roots

    In Indo-European languages such as English, the infinitive is usually the basic from of the verb of which the rest of the forms are derived
    For example, the infinitive "to talk" is the source of many derived words:




    We see that the main stem of the infinitive stays preserved, while the inflection works by affixing other parts to the stem.
    At least it is so most of the time. Unfortunately, in Semitic languages things are a little bit more complex than that.

    In Arabic, the basic source of all the forms of a verb is called the "root" of theverb جَذْرُ الفِعْلِ .

    The root is not a real word, rather it is a sequence of three consonants that can be found in all the words that are related to it.
    Most roots are composed of three letters, very few are of four or five letters.

    The root can be easily obtained from the 3rd person masculine singular past form (the perfective) of the verb.

    Look at these roots:


    You see that the root is not a word; it is just a sequence of consonants.
    The consonants of the root are separated by different vowels in different words.
    They can also be separated by other extra consonants that do not belong to the root.

    The root is used to make all the forms of a verb. It is used to make nouns as well.

    Each root pertains to a certain meaning, e.g. K T B ك ت ب pertains to "writing."

    See the following example:



    So basically all these words were created by taking the root ك ت ب and adding letters or vowels to it.
    This is how Semitic languages work.

    Almost all Arabic words are structured on roots. Words in Arabic grammar belong to three categories:

    Noun الاِسْمُ : includes pronouns, adjectives and most adverbs.

    Verb الْفِعْلُ : there are three main verbal structures in Arabic.

    Letter (particle) الْحَرْفُ : small words that do not have roots.

    So small words without known roots were not even qualified enough to carry the title of a "word" in Arabic grammar.
    Many of these "letters" are prepositions and they do not undergo inflection.

    The letters of the root are called the original letters of a word الأَحْرُفُ الأَصْلِيَّةُ.
    The variable letters that appear between the root letters in different words are called the additional letters الأَحْرُفُ الزائِدَةُ .

    The letters that can serve as additional letters are ten: أ ا ت س ل م ن هـ و ي

    These letters are rounded up in the word: سَأَلْتُمُوْنِيْهَاْ = "you asked me for/about it."

    There are standard patterns for adding additional letters to the root.
    These patterns are called 'awzaan أَوْزَاْنٌ = "measures" or 'abniya(t) أَبْنِيَةٌ= "structures."

    For example:



    So this structure 'in*a*a*(a) has a specific sense that is different from the basic structure *a*a*(a).

    Both structures are structures of active voice past (perfective) verbs.
    However, there is a difference between the two that is reminiscent of the Latin or French difference between faire and se faire.
    The 'in*a*a*(a) structure is called a "reflexive" verb because it denotes a self-directed action.
    You can put so many root letters in place of the stars and you will get the same outcome.

    Usually stars are not used but instead the root ف ع ل = "do" is used for
    giving prototypes of different structures So these two structures will be standardized:




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