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Thread: Danish Language

  1. #41
    PlainChaos
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    Default Possessive Pronouns

    I was gonna put it in a table/diagram like I did before with the personal pronouns, but I guess it'll be easier if we just leave out all the grammatic words, so here's a list:

    Min/mit, (this is like den/det controled by the noun that comes right after), mine (pluralis) = mine
    Din/dit, dine (pl.) = yours
    Hans = his
    Hendes = her
    Dens = its
    Dets = its
    Vores = our
    Jeres = yours (pl.)
    Deres = theirs

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  3. #42
    Senior Member velvet_sky's Avatar
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    Thanks once again
    with the table/diagram is more easier I think but here I will try to sort them as your first post with the personal pronouns

    Possesive Pronouns

    Singularis
    1st person: Min/mit (mine)
    mine (plurals) -mine

    2nd person: din, dit (yours)
    dine (plurals) - yours

    3rd person: Hans, Hendes, Dens/Dets (his, her, its)

    Pluralis
    1st person: Vores (our)
    2nd person: Jeres (yours)
    3rd person: Deres (theirs)
    Last edited by velvet_sky; 08-12-2009 at 02:43 AM.
    Tose Proeski - The Hardest Thing --> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zKRrADJ7j3E
    * Agapi mou gurna pisw, Mou Leipeis... :[

  4. #43
    PlainChaos
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    That looks great, thank you. And no prob, det var så lidt (=you're welcome).

  5. #44
    Senior Member velvet_sky's Avatar
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    sooo tomorrow I will try to write some sentances with the verbs you gave me and will post it here for corrections
    if you have any ideas for exrcises it would be great!

    aahh and can you write here some other verbs like drink, walk, jump, talk, listen.. so on
    Tose Proeski - The Hardest Thing --> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zKRrADJ7j3E
    * Agapi mou gurna pisw, Mou Leipeis... :[

  6. #45
    PlainChaos
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    You're a diligent student! Hehe I'm looking forward to see that!

    Yeah, of course I will:

    At drikke
    To drink
    drikker - drak - har drukket

    At gå
    To walk
    går - gik - har gået

    At hoppe
    To jump
    hopper - hoppede - har hoppet

    At tale
    To talk
    taler - talte - har talt

    At lytte
    To listen
    lytter - lyttede - har lyttet

  7. #46
    Senior Member velvet_sky's Avatar
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    Soo here I am again

    first I will write the sentances that I wrote yesterday (I have a notebook made only from this topic, hehe )

    1) Jeg gor min lektier.
    2) Jeg kommer med ham.
    3) Hun har fundet Appelsin.
    4) Det koster 39 Euros.
    5) Vi elsker chocolate ( I don't know how is chocolate in Danish )
    6) De spiste I gar i os. ( ahm that sentace I wanted to mean like this: Yesterday they ate in us *in our home* , but I am pretty shure it's written wrong )
    7) Du gar foran.

    and I have a question about the sentances. What is the rule for making sentances, I mean the structure?

    1) Han besluttede sig for at gå en tur. (He decided to go for a walk.)
    ahm here I see that at ga is after for and If I translate it directly in Enliglish it will look: He decided for to go a walk so what's the structure of a sentance, which have to be first?

    * and also what's sig

    and did I write correct the verb decide (beslutte)

    beslutter(present tensen) - besluttede (past) - besluttetet (past participle)



    and one more question, I have bought a phrase-book in Danish. And as I was reading it, I saw this:
    en bog (a book)
    et hus (a house)
    en by (town)
    et arbejde (a job)

    and I was wondering why the book is with en when it's not a human

    sorry for being too long
    Tose Proeski - The Hardest Thing --> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zKRrADJ7j3E
    * Agapi mou gurna pisw, Mou Leipeis... :[

  8. #47
    Senior Member velvet_sky's Avatar
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    thanks for the verbs you gave me
    and can you write how is apple, strawberry, milk, water, sandwich, cherry, sweet, salt, sour, bitter, pet, pen, pencil, shirt, dress, trousers, pants

    and other verbs: kiss, write, see, look, sit



    edit: is this correct about the stems of the verbs your wrote
    to drink = at drikke stem: drikk
    to walk = at ga stem: ga (btw I see that to walk is the same as to go, is it the only word for walk? )
    to jump = at hoppe stem: hopp
    to talk = at tale stem: tal
    to listen = at lytte stem: lytt

    and also
    At tale
    To talk
    taler - talte - har talt
    shouldn't it be the form of the verb in past tence taltede and taltet

    Edit again
    Gjorde det ondt? (Did it hurt?)
    ondt is hurt, right?
    so is this correct:
    ondter - ondt - ondtet
    Last edited by velvet_sky; 08-12-2009 at 05:35 AM.
    Tose Proeski - The Hardest Thing --> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zKRrADJ7j3E
    * Agapi mou gurna pisw, Mou Leipeis... :[

  9. #48
    PlainChaos
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    First of all I've gotta say that you really impressed me this time, what a diligent student you are,
    you'll learn Danish in no time!

    I just noticed you don't have Danish keys on your keyboard (what a surprise, huh? )
    so here's how you write them using normal letters:

    æ = ae
    ø = oe
    å = aa

    1) Jeg gør min lektier.
    Here you should use the verb "at lave" (to make) instead, I know that in English you can both say "do homework" and "make homework", but in Danish you can only say "lave lektier" and not "gør lektier", that would be literally wrong.

    2) Jeg kommer med ham.
    Well done! If you said "Jeg kommer sammen (together) med ham" it would have a totally different meaning = I'm dating (going out with) him lol.

    3) Hun har fundet Appelsin.
    She has found an orange? or the orange? Depending on what you wanted to say, you should either put an en before it (en appelsin an orange) or en behind it (appelsinen, with no space).

    4) Det koster 39 Euros.
    Great job.

    5) Vi elsker chocolate ( I don't know how is chocolate in Danish )
    Great job again! It's chokolade.

    6) De spiste I gar i os. ( ahm that sentace I wanted to mean like this: Yesterday they ate in us *in our home*, but I am pretty shure it's written wrong
    Here we'd say "hos os" and not "i os". We normally always say "hjemme hos" when you're visiting someone's homes and so on, you know what I mean, but it's also okay just to say "hos".

    And here's an important thing about Danish syntax, you either put the date (indication of time) in the very beginning of the sentence or in the end. The place (where? hos os) always have first priority, it comes before the indication of time (when? i går, yesterday).
    But when the date is put in the beginning, the place comes afterwards; I går (date at the beginning of sentence) spiste de (hjemme) hos os (place comes after). De spiste hjemme hos os (place first) i går (time/date afterwards).

    7) Du gar foran.
    You go first? or you go in the front? Depending on which one you meant;
    1) Du går først. 2) Du går forrest.

    and I have a question about the sentances. What is the rule for making sentances, I mean the structure?
    It's like in English; first you have the subject x, then the verb o, then the indirect object (if there is one) and then the direct object .

    sig is a reflexive pronoun that refers back to the subject in the sentence (ex. han slog sig he hurt himself here sig refers back to han. hun kom til sig selv she came to herself here sig refers back to hun. de ærgrede sig they were annoyed and so on).

    The possesive pronoun sin (sit - sine) is also used as a reflexive pronoun (refering back) ex. han slog sit hoved he hurt his head.

    ahm here I see that at ga is after for and If I translate it directly in Enliglish it will look: He decided for to go a walk so what's the structure of a sentance, which have to be first?
    That's because for also means "to" or "cause of" in Danish.

    and did I write correct the verb decide (beslutte)

    beslutter(present tensen) - besluttede (past) - besluttetet (past participle)
    Yup, only wrong thing is the past principial, remember: stem + et
    The stem of beslutte is beslut, and with the past principial sufix added it'll be like this: besluttet, notice that some words get an extra consonant when they're conjugated, besluttet.

    and I was wondering why the book is with en when it's not a human
    Well, as I said, there's no rule to this, I can't tell why and when we use the et and en, most often en is used for higher living beings, yes, but sometimes as you see it can also be used for books, this is something that takes a lot of practise, the more nouns you study and memorize, the faster you'll learn it.
    Last edited by PlainChaos; 08-13-2009 at 07:38 AM.

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  11. #49
    PlainChaos
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    An apple: et æble
    Two apples: to æbler
    The apple: æblet
    The apples: æblerne

    A strawberry: et jordbær
    Two strawberries: to jordbær
    The strawberry: jordbæret
    The strawberries: jordbærerne

    A sandwich: en sandwich
    Two sandwiches: to sandwich/sandwicher
    The sandwich: sandwichen
    The sandwiches: sandwicherne

    A pet: et kæledyr
    Two pets: to kæledyr
    The pet: kæledyret
    The pets: kæledyrene

    A pen: en pen
    Two pens: to penne
    The pen: pennen
    The pens: pennene

    A pencil: en blyant
    Two pencils: to blyanter
    The pencil: blyanten
    The pencils: blyanterne

    A shirt: en bluse
    Two shirts: to bluser
    The shirt: blusen
    The shirts: bluserne

    A dress: en kjole
    Two dresses: to kjoler
    The dress: kjolen
    The dresses: kjolerne

    These cannot be conjugated:

    Water: vand
    Milk: mælk
    Sweet: sød/sødt (søde pl.)
    Salty: saltet
    Sour: sur/surt (sure pl.)
    Bitter: bitter/bittert (bitre pl.)
    Trousers: bukser
    Pants: underbukser

    At kysse
    To kiss
    kysser - kyssede - har kysset

    At skrive
    To write
    skriver - skrev - har skrevet

    At se
    To see
    ser - så - har set

    At kigge
    To look
    kigger - kiggede - har kigget

    At sidde
    To sit
    sidder - sad - har siddet

    edit: is this correct about the stems of the verbs your wrote
    to drink = at drikke stem: drikk
    to walk = at ga stem: ga (btw I see that to walk is the same as to go, is it the only word for walk? )
    to jump = at hoppe stem: hopp
    to talk = at tale stem: tal
    to listen = at lytte stem: lytt
    A verb in Danish never ends with two consonants in the stem, the extra consonant is added in the conjugations. So the correct answers are: drik, gå (yes it's the only word), hop, tal, lyt.

    and also shouldn't it be the form of the verb in past tence taltede and taltet
    No, tale is an irregular verb, and don't follow the rules.

    ondt is hurt, right?
    so is this correct:
    ondter - ondt - ondtet
    Ond means evil, but when you wanna say "it hurts", den jo say "det gør ondt", you conjugate gøre and not ondt, det gjorde ondt, det har gjort ondt.

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  13. #50
    Senior Member velvet_sky's Avatar
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    Hey thanks for the compliment and you're very good teacher!

    thanks for showing me how to write the letters with normal keys, hehe
    thanks also for the verbs and the words you listed ;D

    soo here are questions again:

    I går (date at the beginning of sentence) spiste de (hjemme) hos os (place comes after).
    I see you wrote de after spiste, the nominative pronoun always have to after the verb?

    You go first? or you go in the front? Depending on which one you meant;
    1) Du går først. 2) Du går forrest.
    ahm I wanted to mean "you go ahead" or "go ahead"
    and in front is "foran" right, why you used "forrest"

    sig is a reflexive pronoun that refers back to the subject in the sentence (ex. han slog sig he hurt himself here sig refers back to han. hun kom til sig selv she came to herself here sig refers back to hun. de ærgrede sig they were annoyed and so on).

    The possesive pronoun sin (sit - sine) is also used as a reflexive pronoun (refering back) ex. han slog sit hoved he hurt his head.
    so whenever I want to write himself, herself, itself and so on I should use sig? and this sit when it's reflexive pronouin too, how to know which to use ? or it's again on memorizing

    *here is too late and I feel so sleepy now, so I will go to sleep, tomorrow I will write my questions about your last post with the verbs
    Tose Proeski - The Hardest Thing --> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zKRrADJ7j3E
    * Agapi mou gurna pisw, Mou Leipeis... :[

  14. #51
    Senior Member velvet_sky's Avatar
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    Hi again

    first wanna ask about the stems of the verbs again:
    At kysse - to kiss stem: kys
    At skrive - to write stem: skrev
    At se - to see stem: se, or saa
    At kigge - to look stem: kig
    At sidde - to sit stem: sid

    =========
    Quote:
    and also shouldn't it be the form of the verb in past tence taltede and taltet

    No, tale is an irregular verb, and don't follow the rules.
    ahaam, so It's like in English, I should remember the three form of the irregular verbs
    maybe you could give some other irregular verbs

    also can you write the numbers
    Tose Proeski - The Hardest Thing --> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zKRrADJ7j3E
    * Agapi mou gurna pisw, Mou Leipeis... :[

  15. #52
    PlainChaos
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    Thank you, I'm honored

    I see you wrote de after spiste, the nominative pronoun always have to after the verb?
    No, the verb normally comes after the subject (or pronoun), but in this case the verb gotta be first, because we chose to place the time/date (i går) at the beginning of the sentence.

    ahm I wanted to mean "you go ahead" or "go ahead"
    and in front is "foran" right, why you used "forrest"
    Because foran means in front of something (ex. a bulding), it can't be used in this context.

    so whenever I want to write himself, herself, itself and so on I should use sig? and this sit when it's reflexive pronouin too, how to know which to use ? or it's again on memorizing
    You should use sig selv sit is just like det, ex. you don't say sin hus, but sit hus, because hus is neutrum (hence et hus, det hus, huset etc.)

    Correct answers:
    At kysse - to kiss stem: kys
    At skrive - to write stem: skriv
    At se - to see stem: se
    At kigge - to look stem: kig
    At sidde - to sit stem: sid

    ahaam, so It's like in English, I should remember the three form of the irregular verbs
    maybe you could give some other irregular verbs
    Exactly Check out this web site, there's a lot of irregular verbs you can start memorize (good luck btw ) http://www.geocities.com/tsca.geo/dansk/dkirrverbs.html

    also can you write the numbers
    http://www.olestig.dk/dansk/numbers.html

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  17. #53
    Senior Member velvet_sky's Avatar
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    Thanks a lot!
    Tose Proeski - The Hardest Thing --> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zKRrADJ7j3E
    * Agapi mou gurna pisw, Mou Leipeis... :[

  18. #54
    Member Lyndsie's Avatar
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    This is a fantastic thread, the only Danish I know is from Nik & Jay songs, ie, not a lot.

    My only question thus far {I need to give this thread a better read through}, can you explain ikke?
    Mostly just placement--does it go before or after the word/verb you are trying to negate?
    Oh, and also the difference between jeg er and jeg', and things of that nature, I'm assuming it's a contraction, so could you go a bit in-depth with the difference between Danish and English contractions?

    Thanks so much!

  19. #55
    PlainChaos
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    Glad to have you join us

    Ikke is always put before the verb, there's some exceptions in poetry etc., though.

    Well, as you already said jeg' is a contraction of jeg er.
    You can also say du' (you're) det' (it's) vi' (we're) I' (you're, pl.) de' (they're), but of some reason we won't contract han er (he's) and hun er (she's) in Danish. The apostrophe is not necessary at all, in fact, these contractions are only used in daily speech (or in songs etc), normally in written lang. and so on you'd never make contractions like these, this also applies to the examples below:

    ka' (kan) can
    ku' (kunne) could

    ska' (skal) shall
    sku' (skulle) should

    ha' (hav) have
    Ex. Ha' en god dag. Have a nice day.

    go' (god) good
    Ex. Go' aften. Good evening.

    hva' (hvad) what
    Ex. hva' så? what's up?

    These were some of the most frequently used contractions in daily speech.

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  21. #56
    Member Lyndsie's Avatar
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    Okay, thank you, that's extremely helpful!

    I'm hopefully going to Denmark through school in 2012 so I'm trying to get a headstart on learning the language a little bit so I don't make a complete fool of myself when I arrive, haha.

  22. #57
    Moonderator panselinos's Avatar
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    I made this thread sticky, so it won't move from the top when new threads are created. Keep up the good work, guys!
    It's funnier in Enochian

  23. #58
    PlainChaos
    Guest

    Thx panselinos what a great idea yay

    Quote Originally Posted by Lyndsie View Post
    Okay, thank you, that's extremely helpful!

    I'm hopefully going to Denmark through school in 2012 so I'm trying to get a headstart on learning the language a little bit so I don't make a complete fool of myself when I arrive, haha.
    You're welcome

    That's so cool, and don't worry you're already doing great

  24. #59
    Member Lyndsie's Avatar
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    Another question--what's the difference between ikk and ikke?
    I notice both forms when looking at lyrics...is it a bit like color and colour?

    And could you maybe list some polite phrases/words, for example;
    Thank you.
    Please.
    May I...?
    You are welcome.

    and things of that nature? Other ones are escaping me at the moment but you may think of others I forgot..

    Oh, and also, salutations, like;
    Mr.
    Mrs.
    Ms.
    sir
    ma'am


    Thanks.

  25. #60
    PlainChaos
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    Quote Originally Posted by Lyndsie View Post
    Another question--what's the difference between ikk and ikke?
    I notice both forms when looking at lyrics...is it a bit like color and colour?
    Not exactly; ikk is just informal language, like e.g. when you write to your friends etc.

    Thank you = Tak (skal du have)
    Thank you so much = Tusind tak
    Thank you, the same to you = Tak i lige måde (informal contraction = ilm)
    Thank you for a lovely evening = Tak for i aften
    Thank you for today = Tak for i dag
    Thank you for yesterday = Tak for i går
    Thanks for helping = Tak for hjælpen
    Please = Kom nu or vil du ikke nok? or vær nu sød, you could also just say please
    May I...? = Med forlov
    You are welcome = Det var så lidt or selv tak
    See you = Vi ses
    Take care of yourself = Pas godt på dig selv
    Send my regards to [name] = Hils [name]
    Good morning = God morgen
    Good afternoon = God eftermiddag
    Good evening = God aften
    Goodnight = Godnat

    Mr. and sir = Hr. (herre)
    Mrs. and ma'am = Fru
    Ms. = Frk. (frøken)

    I can't really think of anything else right now, but I hope those will help you

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